Read e-book online A Field Guide to Hummingbirds of North America PDF

By Sheri Williamson

ISBN-10: 0618024956

ISBN-13: 9780618024957

ISBN-10: 0618024964

ISBN-13: 9780618024964

Это наиболее детальный определитель колибри, характеризующий 31 североамериканский вид и снабженный 250 цветными фотографиями и 33 картами. Во вводной главе изложена естественная история колибри, способы их привлечения и кормления, а также места в США и Канаде, наиболее удобные для наблюдения колибри. На 31 цветной вкладке приведены иллюстрации 28 видов, 7 гибридных комбинаций, three формы альбиносов и four вида бабочек-бражников, часто принимаемых за колибри. Описание видов включает информацию о песнях и сигналах, шорохе крыльев, сходных видах, поведении, местообитаниях, распространении, систематике, охранном статусе. Для некоторых распространенных мигрирующих видов приведены даты ожидаемого весеннего прилета.
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Extra info for A Field Guide to Hummingbirds of North America

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Associated with bad weather. • Depicted as a red “L” on weather maps. b. Air from a high-pressure area is basically trying to flow out and equalize its pressure with the surrounding air. Low pressure, on the other hand, is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself, which causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad weather. c. On a weather map, these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury.

Higher levels of energy expenditure will be experienced. 8—Very great difficulty. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule. High physical conditioning, climbing technique, and experience required. 9—Extremely great difficulty. Requires well above average ability and excellent condition. Exposed positions, often combined with small belay points. Passages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions. Often combined with aid climbing (A0-A4). 10—Extraordinary difficulty.

The bedding planes (strata) may also be distorted by folding and squeezing. Shale changes to slate or schist, sandstone and conglomerate into quartzite, and limestone to marble. These changes may be minimal, only slightly altering the sediments, or extensive enough to produce gneiss, which is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock. (1) Metamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding, but cleavage or foliation, a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding. Because of this cleavage, lower grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement.

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A Field Guide to Hummingbirds of North America by Sheri Williamson

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