W. B. Crow (Auth.)'s A Synopsis of Biology PDF

By W. B. Crow (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 1483200299

ISBN-13: 9781483200293

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In the ordinary repro­ duction of yeast, for example, the nucleus divides, one part passing to the surface where a small protrusion appears ; this gets larger and may itself bud in the same way before it separates from the parent cell. However, only one bud a t a time is usually produced. In shelled amoeboid protozoa a similar phenomenon is observed, the small bud appearing a t the opening of the shell. Here, however, the cell usually gives off a number of buds, as in Arcella. FRAGMENTATION Particularly seen in thallophytes (lower plants not differentiated into stem, leaf, and root) ; the branched filamentous body of a fungus, termed a m y c e l i u m , may on occasion break up quite irregularly into a number of parts, each of which gives rise to a new p l a n t ; blue-green algae often break up into a number of short lengths of filament ( h o r m o gones) or single cells (planococci) which, in this case, although nonflagellate, have the power of movement; in seaweeds any part broken off may grow and the broad strap-shaped thallus often produces adventitious growths which become detached; they probably appear a t points where a slight injury has occurred ; in lichens small portions of the thallus, containing both fungal hyphae and algal cells (soredia), also frequently detach and grow.

Connexions have also been described between cells of epithelia and muscular and connective tissues of animals ; also in the blastoderm of the embryo. Whilst such structures chiefly occur between cells of common origin, being derived from spindle elements, they can also originate as secondary out­ growths, as evinced by work on dodder, a parasite wherein sieve tubes can connect with those of its host, thus favouring absorption. The pit membranes of the seed of the date and the star of Bethlehem endosperm are thick, and here the proto­ plasmic connexions may be shown easily by swelling with sulphuric acid and staining with iodine.

Eggs. —The formation of sperms takes place as follows. In the grasshopper each primordial germ cell divides eight times producing 2 8 = 2 5 6 cells. In other cases, as in earthworm or vertebrate, division continues indefinitely, the youngest cells being near the attachment, the oldest on the free side. , in earthworm in groups of 16 or 32, called sperm-morulae. The cells finally formed by such division are called p r i m a r y s p e r m a t o c y t e s ; they undergo the reduction division, forming first secondary spermatocytes, then these divide into s p e r m a t i d s .

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A Synopsis of Biology by W. B. Crow (Auth.)


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